Resources/Tamarind

 

Name of the Commodity : Tamarind

Botanical Name : Tamarindus indica
Family :
 
Cultivation

It is normally growing as a wild species. But hybrid qualities are reported to be cultivated in the southern part of India. Tamarind tree takes about 13-14 years for full growth, but it has got very high demand in foreign countries (particularly middle east) so there is need for cultivation practices.

 
Soils

Tamarind tree grows well in deep, well-drained soils, which are slightly acid. Trees will not tolerate heavy cold, wet soils but are tolerant of salt spray and can be planted fairly near the seashore.

 
Climate

The tamarind is well-adapted humid tropical area with seasonally high rainfall. Young trees are very susceptible to frost, but mature trees will withstand brief periods of 48o C without serious injury. Dry weather is important during the period of fruit development.

 
Propagation

Rootstocks are propagated from seed, which germinate within a week. Seeds retain their viability for several months if kept dry. When the planting takes place the young trees should be planted in holes larger than necessary to accommodate the root system. They should be planted slightly higher than existing ground level to allow for subsequent settling of the soil and a water basin should be built around each tree to assure adequate moisture for young trees. Spacing of trees is normally 20 to 25 ft. in commercial orchards.

 
Irrigation

Young trees require adequate soil moisture until they become established, but mature trees do quite well without supplemental irrigation. Avoid over-watering which results in soggy soils.

 
Harvesting Details : Harvest

Tamarind fruits mature in early summer. They may be left on the tree for as long as 6 months after maturity so that the moisture content will be reduced to 20% or lower. Fruits for immediate processing are often harvested by pulling the pod away from the stalk. The tree begins to bear fruit at the age of 13-14 years and continues to yield abundant crops for more than 60 years. The flowers appear from June and July and the pods ripen in the cold season. The pods should be allowed to ripen on the tree until the outer shell is dry.

 
Harvesting Period

Mostly the harvesting of tamarind takes place between 1st March to 15th April. Fruits harvested by the pulling pod away from the stalk. The fruits harvested are stored in neat and clean place. The harvested pod should sun dried for getting best pulp. Fruit harvested after 15th April must be stored in refrigeration.

 
Processing and Grading

For best price Tamarind should be deseeded. For the deseeding purpose the tamarind requires two-day sundry so that in deseeding process pulp will remain intact. While drying the tamarind for deseeded purpose, the following precaution must be observed. Over drying must be avoided- result loss a colour pigment and flower portion must keep upside. Good quality deseeded defibred Tamarind are called flower tamarind where white portion of tamarind clearly visible. Good quality Tamarind is reddish brown.

 
Yields
A full-grown tree yields 180-225 kg of fruit per season.

 


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