Resources/Karanji

 

Name of the Commodity : Karanja

Botanical Name : Pongamia pinnata Perre
Family :
 
Synonyms
  Trade : Poonga   English : Indian Beach
  Andhra Pradesh : Gaanug, Pungu   Karnataka : Honge, Huligili, Batti, Uggemara
  Kerala : Minnari, Punnu   Tamil Nadu :Pongam, Ponga
  Orissa : Koronjo-Kanga   West Bengal : Dalkaramcha
  Haryana, M.P, Maharashtra : Karanja,    Karanj   Gujarat, U.P., Rajasthan, Punjab :   Sukhchain, Karanj, Papri
  Assam : Karchaw  
 
Description

Karanja is a drought resistant semi-deciduous nitrogen fixing leguminous tree. A medium sized glabrous tree with a short bole and spreading crown upto 18 feet high or some times even more and 1.5 feet in girth, bark grayish green or brown.

 
Parts Used
Seeds, Stem, Leaves, Fruit, Root. Seed is valued for production of Oil
 
Uses
  • The main use of Karanja Oil is in the tanning industry for dressing of E.I. leathers.

  • The Karanja Oil is mainly used as a raw material for manufacturing of washing soaps, candles and for illumination purposes. The main constraints for usage of karnanja oil in soaps are its colour and odour.

  • The oil has been known for its curative effect for skin problems such as herpes, leucoderma, psoriasis, scabies and skin itches. The root is ground with water and is used for cure of wounds.

  • In village, where this tree is common, the leaves are used for storing grains, books and clothes to prevent from insect damage.

  • The oil also find use in treatment of skin diseases locally.

  • Cake is rich in protein(30-35%) but it is unpalatable and toxic to cattle even at 4% level due to presence of several toxic principles(karanjin,pongamol etc.). These toxins are oil soluble and most of the toxin are removed during solvent extraction of oil from cake with hexane. Therefore, de-oiled cakes could be used in compound cattle feed.

  • The cake contains nitrogen(N) 5.1%, phosphorous( P 2 O 5) 1.1% and potash ( K 2 0) 1.3.% and has been reported as a useful organic manure for sugarcane, coffee, oranges and paddy. It repeals red ants and also reported effective for nematode controls. It also possess nitrification inhibition property and cake is used in blending with nitrogenous fertilizers.

  • Oleic acid is the principal unsaturated fatty acid averaging 45 to 70% of all the commercially available oils from Tree Borne Oil Seeds like Neem and Sal, Karanja containing maximum oleic acid, is a valuable raw material for oleic acid derived oleo chemicals apart from other traditional uses.

  • The oil can be used after neutralization as a lubricant for heavy lathes, chains, bearings of small gas engines and heavy engines.

  • The oil and its active component karanja possess insecticidal and antibacterial properties, 2% karanja oil resin soap spray is reported to be effective against the nymph and adult stages of the green bug of coffee.

Potential
The total estimated potential of Karnaja Seed is 2.00 lakh MT per annum.

 


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